Variables
Variables are commonly declared using the var keyword:
var num = 42
var str = "42"
var bool = true

Lexical variables

These kinds of variables are lexical, but statically block scoped. This is the usual way of declaring variables in Sidef.
var x = 42 # sets the lexical x to 42
say x # prints the lexical value of x

Static variables

This kind of variables are static, block-scoped and initialized only once.
static x = 42 # sets the static x to 42
say x # prints the static value of x

Global variables

Global variables are declared at the top-level of the current namespace. They can be accessed from everywhere, anytime. However, try to avoid using them, unless you really don't have any better alternative.
global x = 42 # sets global x to 42
say x # prints the global value of x

Local variables

Local variables (also known as "dynamically scoped variables") can be used to localize array/hash lvalues or global variables to a limited scope.
global x = 42 # sets the global x to 42
do {
local x = 100 # localizes x inside this block to 100
say x # prints the local value of x
}
say x # prints the global value of x (42)
A slightly more advanced example, illustrating the localization of an hash lvalue, would be:
func foo(h) {
say h{:key}
}
var h = Hash(key => "a")
foo(h) # prints "a"
do {
local h{:key} = "b" # local change only
foo(h) # prints: "b"
}
foo(h) # prints: "a"

Variable scoping

All variables (including functions and classes) are block scoped in the following way:
var x = 'o'
do {
say x # o
var x = 'm'
say x # m
do {
say x # m
var x = 'b'
say x # b
}
say x # m
}
say x # o
Declaring multiple variables at once is also possible:
var (x, y, z) = (3.14, false, "foo")
We can, also, declare variables with some default values:
var (x, y=755, z=777) = (666, 655)
say x # prints: 666
say y # prints: 655
say z # prints: 777

Slurpy variables

Slurpy (or greedy) variables are a special type of variables which can be initialized with a list of values, creating automatically a container to hold the data.
var *arr = (1,2,3) # creates an Array
say arr # prints: [1,2,3]
var :hash = (a => 1, b => 2) # creates an Hash
say hash # prints: Hash(a=>1, b=>2)

Working with variables

Any method applied to a variable is applied on the object at which the variable is pointing at:
var x = 'sidef'
say x.uc # prints: `SIDEF`
say x # prints: `sidef`
Special ! at the end of a method changes the variable in-place (almost like in Ruby):
var x = 'sidef'
x.uc! # notice the `!`
say x # prints: `SIDEF`
Appending the = sign at the end of arithmetic operators, the variable will be changed in place:
var x = 5
x += 10 # adds 10 to "x"
say x # prints: 15
The special operator := (also available as \\=), assigns a value to a variable if the current value of the variable is nil:
var x = nil
x := 42 # assigns 42 to x if x is nil
x := 99 # x is already defined
say x #=> 42
The defined-or operator \\ can be used for checking if a variable is defined or not:
var x = nil # nil represents an undefined value
say defined(x) # prints 'false'
x \\ say 'undefined' # prints 'undefined'
x \\= 99 # sets x to 99
x \\ say 'undefined' # no longer prints 'undefined'

Special identitiers

  • ARGV is an Array that contains the program's command-line arguments, that were not given to Sidef.
  • ENV is an Hash copy of environment variables and their values when the program was started.
  • ARGF is a FileHandle object used to read lines from argument-files or from STDIN when no argument has been specified.
  • DATA is a FileHandle object that points to the data stored after the __END__ or __DATA__ tokens.
say ARGV # command-line arguments
say ENV{:HOME} # get an environment variable
ARGF.each { |line| # cat-like program
say line
}
DATA.each {|line| # iterate over lines in __DATA__
say line
}
__DATA__
hello
world

Topic variable

The special topic variable (_) is declared at compile-time in each block-object in the program. You may not see its real name very often, because it has been overtaken by the elegant prefix dot (.) operator:
[25,36,49].map {.sqrt} \
.each{.log.say}
...where .sqrt really means _.sqrt, and .log.say means _.log.say.